Glossary of terms

ACC American College of Cardiology 

Accession Number A user-friendly identifier created by the Departmental System, which identifies an instance of a filler order or imaging service request. It may group one or more requested procedures. 

Accountability The property that ensures that the actions of an entity may be traced uniquely to the entitya. 

Actor An entity within a use case diagram that can per- form an action within a use case diagram. Possible actions are creation or consumption of a message. 

ADT Admit, Discharge & Transfer.

Aliquoter An automated device which aliquots a parent specimen into one or more child specimen. 

AM Automation Manager. 

Analyzer An actor which is an automated device which fulfills clinical tests on biologic specimen. An Analyzer per- forms analyzing for a specimen according to AWOS, and re- turn the result to the AM. 

ASE American Society of Echocardiography. 

Assertion A piece of data produced by a SAML authority regarding either an act of authentication performed on a sub- ject, attribute information about the subject, or authorization data applying to the subject with respect to a specified re- source. This Assertion is used in access control and audit trails. 

Attestation Attestation is a personal assertion of the truth of the statement to which you are attesting. 

AWOS Analytical Work Order Step: A WOS performed by an Analyzer actor. 

Battery A set of one or more observations identified as by a single name and code, treated as a shorthand unit for or- dering or retrieving results of the constituent observations. A battery can be a single observation, but also a superset of batteries. 

BIR British Institute of Radiology. 

Care Delivery Organization/Enterprise An organi- zation that provides medical services at one or more physi- cal locations. 

CCOW ANSIcertifiedtechnologyneutralspecificationforthe Health Level Seven Context Management Architecture (CMA). This architecture enables multiple applications to be auto- matically coordinated and synchronized in clinically meanin- gful ways at the point of use. The architecture specified in this document establishes the basis for bringing interoperability among healthcare applications to point-of-use devices, such as a personal computer that serves as a clinical desktop. 

CDA Clinical Document Architecture (specified by HL7).

Centrifuge An automated device which takes off the cap of the specimen container. 

Clinical Affinity Domain A group of healthcare enter- prises that have agreed to work together using a common set of policies and which share a common infrastructure of repositories and a registry. 

CLSI Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute organization.

COCIR European Coordination Committee of the Radiological Electromedical and Medical Informatics Indus. 

Code set A code set is any set of codes used for encoding data elements, such as tables of terms, medical concepts, medical diagnosis codes, or medical procedure codes. An example of international code set is LOINCTM (Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes). 

Context Management Registry An HTTP technology specific service defined by the HL7 Context Management CCOW Standard to locate an instance of a context manager servicing a specific desktop. 

Context Session A collection of participant applications that are sharing context on one or more subjects. 

Conveyor An automated device which transports speci- men to the appropriate devices. 

CT Consistent Time Integration Profile. 

Decaper An automated device which takes off the cap of the specimen container. 

Digital Signature A legally useful electronic equivalent to facsimile signature, including signatures generated for a varie ty of entities including human and machine sources. Based on digital certificates attributable to well-known healthcare orien- ted certificate authorities; incorporating cryptographically se- cure techniques for signature generation and validation. 

Dilution System An automated device which dilutes a specimen by mixing a diluent. 

Directory A book containing the names and residences of the inhabitants of any place, or of classes of them; an ad- dress book; as, a business directory. 

Disposition The manner in which the referenced ins- tances are to be disposed of, their intended use. 

DML Device Message Layer defined by the standard POCT1-A. 

DMZ De-Militarized Zone. A computer or small sub-network that sits between a trusted internal network, such as a cor- porate private LAN, and an un-trusted external network, such as the public Internet. Typically, the DMZ contains devices ac- cessible to Internet traffic, such as Web (HTTP) servers, FTP servers, SMTP (e-mail) servers and DNS servers. 

DRG Deutsche Roentgengesellschaft.

EAR European Association of Radiology.

ECG Electrocardiogram.

ECR European Congress of Radiology. 

EHR-CR An EHR-CR or Care-delivery Record abstracts the patient information managed by the IT system or set of sys- tems of a Care Delivery Organization, which may support a broad variety of healthcare facilities: private practice, nursing home, ambulatory clinic, acute care in-patient facility, etc. 

EHR-LR The documents shared by the EHR-CR and tracked by the Registry form a Longitudinal Record for the patients that received care among the EHR-CRs of the Clinical Affini- ty Domain. This is known as the EHR-LR. 

eMPI Enterprise Master Patient Index. 

Encounter An interaction between a patient and care provider(s) for the purpose of providing healthcare-related service(s). Healthcare services include health assessment. Examples: outpatient visit to multiple departments, home health support (including physical therapy), inpatient hospi- tal stay, emergency room visit, field visit (e.g., traffic accident), office visit, occupational therapy, telephone call. 

ESC European Society of Cardiology. 

EUA Enterprise User Authentication Integration Profile. 

Evidence Documents represent the uninter- preted information that is primarily managed and used inside the imaging department, although distribution outside the imaging department is not precluded. Evidence documents are non-image information and include things such as measu- rements, CAD results, procedure logs, etc and are to be en- coded as DICOM SR documents. represent the uninterpreted information that is primarily managed and used inside the imaging department, although distribution outside the ima- ging department is not precluded. Evidence documents are non-image information and include things such as measu- rements, CAD results, procedure logs, etc and are to be en- coded as DICOM SR documents. 

Evidence Objects All objects generated as a result of performing procedure steps on systems in an imaging de- partment. These objects are used by the reading physician in the process of creating a diagnostic report and are managed inside the imaging Department. Examples of evidence ob- jects include: Images, Presentation States, Key Image Notes and Evidence Documents. 

Expected Actions Actions which should occur as the re- sult of a trigger event. 

Federated Identity A user s identity is said to be federated between a set of Providers when there is an agreement between the providers on a set of identifiers and/or attributes to use to refer to the user. 

Federation This term is used in two senses in SAML:

  • The act of establishing a relationship between two entities
  • An association comprising any number of service providers and identity providers. 

Foreign Key (FK) A database key that is used as a refe- rence to relate one entity to another entity. It may be a unique value, or used in conjunction with another Foreign Key to create a unique value. 

Globally Unique Identifier (GUID) An identifier of an entity, such as persistent document, that has been generated by an algorithm guaranteeing its global uniqueness. 

GMSIH Groupement pour la Modernisation du Système d’Information Hospitalier. 

GSPS Grayscale Softcopy Presentation State. 

Hash A value uniquely calculated by using a well-known al- gorithm to create a digest all of the data constituting an elec- tronic record. An actor uses a private key to generate a digital signature by transforming this value. By recalculating the hash digest value, and using the actor’s certificate’s public key to trans- form the electronic signature, it is possible to attest to the actor’s signing ceremony and to the integrity of the signed record. 

HIMSS Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society. 

HIS Hospital Information System. 

HL7 Health Level Seven consortium. 

ICE Intracardiac Echocardiography. Identity Provider A type of service provider that creates, maintains, and manages identity information for users and provides user authentication to other service providers within a federation, such as with web browser profiles. 

IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. 

IHE Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise. 

Images Available A transaction or transactions used to determine that images have been stored in an image archive and may be retrieved. 

inetOrgPerson The inetOrgPerson [RFC 2798] object class is a general purpose object class that holds attributes about people. The attributes it holds were chosen to accom- modate information requirements found in typical Internet and Intranet directory service deployments. The inetOrgPerson object class is designed to be used within directory services based on the LDAP v3 [RFC 2251] and the X.500 family of protocols, and it should be useful in other contexts as well. 

Integrity The property of the data has not been altered, or destroyed in an unauthorized mannere. 

Interaction Diagram A diagram that depicts data flow and sequencing of events. 

IOD Information Object Definitions. 

IPEM Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine. 

IT Information Technology. 

IVUS Intravascular Ultrasound. 

JAHIS Japan Association of Healthcare Information Systems Industry. 

JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group. 

KDC Key Distribution Center (the Kerberos server that is- sues Ticket Granting Tickets and service tickets. See RFC1510). 

KITH Kompetansesentret for IT i Helse. Labeler An automated device which affixes the bar code 
label to the specimen container. 

LAS Laboratory Automation System: A system which hand- les a set of Laboratory Devices (LD). This system implements the Automation Manager actor. 

LCSD Laboratory Code Set Distribution profile. 

LD Laboratory Device: A category of actors in LDA profile. A LD actor is either an Analyzer actor or a Pre/Post processor actor. 

LDA LaboratoryDeviceAutomationprofile. 

LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol is designed to provide access to directories supporting the X.500 models, while not incurring the resource requirements of the X.500 Directory Access Protocol (DAP). This protocol is specifically targeted at management applications and browser applica- tions that provide read/write interactive access to directories. When used with a directory supporting the X.500 protocols, it is intended to be a complement to the X.500 DAP. 

LIR LaboratoryInformationReconciliationprofile. 

LIS LaboratoryInformationSystem. 

local authentication In the ATNA profile the term local authentication means that the user identification, authenti- cation, and authorization method is chosen by the local sys- tem administration and does not necessarily comply with any IHE profile. It may be a local username password system, a secure token system, or any other system that is considered acceptable by the local security administration. 

LPOCT Laboratory Point Of Care Testing profile. 

LSWF LaboratoryScheduledWorkFlowprofile. 

LUT LookUpTable. 

Manifest Document A Manifest Document is an ins- tance of DICOM Key Object Selection SOP Class, which des- cribes and collects a set of DICOM SOP Instances that are intended for sharing. 

Master File A common reference file used by one or more application systems. A code set can be considered as a mas- ter file. 

MLLP HL7 Minimal Lower Layer Protocol (see IHE Labora- tory Technical Framework). 

Movement A Movement is an event describing a change of the situation of the patient in the context of the encounter. This concept encompasses changes such as transfers of pa- tient location, change of patient class, new attending doctor, new consulting doctor, new encounter starting, encounter closing, etc. The concept of Movement is a superset of the concept of “Transfer”. 

MPI Master Patient Index. 

MPPS ModalityPerformedProcedureStep. 

MRN MedicareRecordNumber. 

MWL Modality Worklist. 

NEMA NationalElectricalManufacturersAssociation. 

NHS NHSInformationAuthority. 

NICTIZ Nationaal ICT Instituut in de Zorg. 

Non-repudiation This service provides proof of the in- tegrity and origin of data which can be verified by any party. 

NTP Network Time Protocol. This is the standard Internet protocol for synchronizing computer clocks. The web site provides extensive background docu- mentation at the introductory and expert level on how to syn- chronize computers. 

NvvR NederlandseVerenigingvoorRadiologie. 

Observation A measurement of a single variable or a single value derived logically and/or algebraically from other measured or derived values. A test result is an observation. 

OID Object Identifier. (See also ‘Globally Unique Identifier). ORI Observation Reporting Interface defined by the standard POCT1-A. PACS PictureArchiveandCommunicationSystem. 

PAM Patient Administration Management Integration Profile in IT Infrastructure Technical Framework. 

Patient (When used in the context of ATNA) RFC-XXXX defines the means of identifying the person who is a patient. The patient information in audit event records corresponds to the information available to identify a patient at the time the audit record was generated, and does not reflect later up- dates (e.g. patient reconciliation). 

PatientID (When used in the context of ATNA) A free text that holds the system- internal patient identifier being unique within that system domain. The patient identifier domain is that assigned to the system that generated the audit event record. The patient information in audit event records corres- ponds to the information available to identify a patient at the time the audit record was generated, and does not reflect later updates (e.g. patient reconciliation). 

Patient Identifier Cross-reference Domain Consists of a set of Patient Identifier Domains known and managed by a Patient Identifier Cross-reference Manager Actor. The Patient Identifier Cross-reference Manager Actor is responsi- ble for providing lists of alias identifiers from different Patient Identifier Domains. 

Patient Identifier Domain A single system or a set of interconnected systems that all share a common identification scheme for patients. Such a scheme includes: (1) a sin- gle identifier-issuing authority, (2) an assignment process of an identifier to a patient, (3) a permanent record of issued patient identifiers with associated traits, and (4) a mainte- nance process over time. The goal of Patient Identification is to reduce errors. 

Patient Mapping Agent The CCOW defined component that provides for the mapping of patient identifiers across dis- parate patient identity domains. 

Patient Subject The PSA defined subject that supports sharing the currently selected patient identifier amongst dis- parate applications running on the desktop. 

PDF Portable Document Format. PDQ Patient Demographics Query Integration Profile in IT 
Infrastructure Technical Framework. 

Personnel White Pages Information on human work- force members within the authority of the PWP directory. This information has broad use among many clinical and non- clinical applications across the healthcare enterprise. The in- formation can be used to enhance the clinical workflow (contact information), enhance the user interface (user friendly names and titles), and ensure identity. 

PIX Patient Identifier Cross-referencing Integration Profile. PMA Patient Mapping Agent component as defined by CCOW. 

POCDM Point Of Care Data Manager actor. 

POCRG Point Of Care Results Generator actor. 

POCT Point of care testing. 

Point of Service (POS) Application An application used by physicians to access patient information and per- form work. Examples of a POS include EMR, EHR, physician practice system, PACS, etc. 

Post-processoro An automated device which takes off the cap of the specimen container. 

PPS Performed Procedure Step. 

Pre-fetch The activity of fetching images or other infor- mation objects from previously completed procedures to near-term storage for review of those data. 

Pre/Post-processor An actor which provides some pre- and post- processes to the specimen. This actor is categorized to two sub categories, one is pre-processor and the other one is post-processor. A Pre/Post-processor processes a specimen according to SWOS, and return the result to the AM. 

Pre-processor An automated device which provides some preparation (decapping, aliquoting, centrifugation, transportation,...) of the specimen before the clinical testing. 

Private key A key in an asymmetric cryptographic algo- rithm; the possession of this key is restricted, usually to one entity. 

Process Flow Diagram A graphical illustration of the flow of processes and interactions among the actors involved in a particular example. 

PSA Patient-Synchronized Applications Integration Profile. 

Pseudonymize Replace identification with fictitious values. 

Public Key A key in an asymmetric algorithm that is publicly available. 

QC QualityControlperformedbyAnalyzeractoronaquali- ty control specimen. 

RCR Royal College of Radiologist. 

Recaper An automated device which re-caps a specimen container. 

Regional Health Information Network An imple- mentation of an affinity domain serving a number of care delivery organizations in a region. 

RID Retrieve Information for Display Integration Profile.

Role The actions of an actor in a use case.

RSNA Radiological Society of North America.

Scope A brief description of the transaction. 

SCP Service Class Provider. 

SCU Service Class User. 

secure domain A network, hardware systems, secure nodes, and physical environment for which a single set of security policies is defined and enforced for access to its ad- dressable objects. 
secure node A network-addressable system that conforms to a secure domain s access policies and management. A secure node often supports IHE actors. 

Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) The set of specifications describing security assertions that are en- coded in XML, profiles for attaching the assertions to various protocols and frameworks, the request/response protocol used to obtain the assertions, and bindings of this protocol to various transfer protocols (for example, SOAP and HTTP). 

Security Domain An environment defined by a single set of security policies, including a set of people, equipment, facili- ties, procedures. A Security Domain may be a single enterprise or a collection of enterprises (e.g. IHE-XDS Affinity Domain). 

SFIL SociétéFrançaised’InformatiquedeLaboratoire.

SFR Société Française de Radiologie. 

Signature ceremony An instance of an entity creating a digital signature document. 

Signature purpose A nindication of the reason a nentity signs a document. This may be explictly included as part of the signed information and can be used when determining ac- countability for various actions concerning the document. Examples include: author, transcriptionist/recorder, and witness. 

Signature time The date and time of a signature ceremony. 

SIRM SocietàItalianadiRadiologiaMedica. 

SNTP SimpleNetworkTimeProtocol.Thisisareducedaccu- racy version of NTP. The protocol fields are the same, but the data values and algorithms used are greatly reduced accuracy so that it can be implemented on limited capacity systems. 

Sorter An automated device which sorts the specimen ac- cording to their process type. 

Specimen Storage System An automated storage de- vice which saves and manages processed specimen. 

SPS Scheduled Procedure Step. 

SR Structured Report. 

Submission Set A set of XDS documents registered to- gether to a Document Repository concerning information re- lated to one care event of a single patient, provided by an EHR system. 

SUID TheStudyInstanceUIDfromaDICOMSOPinstance, or collection of SOP instances. 

SWOS Specimen Wok Order Step: A WOS performed by a Pre/Post Processor actor. 

TEE Transesphogeal Echocardiography.

Test A medical procedure that involves testing a sample of blood, urine, or other substance from the body. 

TGT Ticket Granting Ticket. The initial credentials that verify that the user has been authenticated. It is used to avoid re- peated user authentication events and as a token to request access to services.icket Granting Ticket. The initial credentials that verify that the user has been authenticated. It is used to avoid repeated user authentication events and as a token to request access to services. 

Trigger Event An event such as the reception of a mes- sage or completion of a process, which causes another ac- tion to occur. 

TTE Transthoracic Echocardiography. 

UID Unique Identifier (See also Globally Unique Identifier). 

Universal ID Unique identifier over time within the UID type. Each UID must belong to one of specifically enumerated species. Universal ID must follow syntactic rules of its scheme. 

URI Unique Resource Identifier. Use Case A graphical depiction of the actors and opera- 
tion of a system. 

User A natural person who makes use of a system and its resources for any purpose. A more generalized term princi- pal is used in SAML. For the purpose of XUA the SAML use of principal should be considered equal to XUA use of user. 

Username A sequence of characters, different from a password, that is used as identification and is required when logging on to a multiuser computer system, LAN, bulletin board system, or online service. Also called user ID, or uid. 

User Subject The PSA defined subject that supports shar- ing the user identity of the currently logged in to the appli- cations on the desktop. 

UTC Universal Coordinated Time. This is the replacement for GMT. It defines a reference time base that is internationally recognized and supported. 

WOS Work Order Step: A step of a Work Order performed on one specimen. 

XA X-ray Angiography. 

XDS Document An XDS Document is the smallest unit of information that may be provided to a Document Repository and registered in a Document Registry. An XDS Document may contain simple text, formatted text (e.g. HL7 CDA Re- lease 1), images (e.g. DICOM) or structured and vocabulary coded clinical information (e.g. CDA Release 2, CCR), or may be made up of a mixture of the above types of content. 

XDS Folder An XDS Folder allows document sources to group the documents they submit with other related docu- ments. What constitutes a Folder and the vocabulary associa- ted with the specific Folders used by an EHR-CR is decided by an agreement between the care delivery organization members of a Clinical Affinity Domain. 

ZVEI ZentralverbandElektrotechnik-undElektronikindustrie.